The various conditions that affect fertility in females are
- Ovulation Disordersthat prevents the release of eggs from the ovaries. The patient may complain of amenorrhea or short or irregular periods. The abnormality could be due to/li>
- Hypothalmic or Pituitary Factors: Low levels of FSH or Follicle Stimulating Hormone, LH or Luteinizing Hormone and Estradiol associated with or without increase in Prolactin.
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: It is hormonal disorder associated with irregular cycles caused by an excess in male hormones.
- Premature Ovarian Failure: In this case the ovaries stop working before the age of 40 caused by low estradiol with increased FSH.
- Uterine or outflow tract disorders
Fallopian Tube Block or Damage: Fallopian tube is the tube which carries the egg from the ovary to the womb or uterus and on this journey fertilization takes place. Hence if there is damage to the womb or fallopian tube then it becomes very difficult to conceive. These damages can be attributed to one of these
- Scar Tissue: Scar tissue may be formed as a result of pelvic or cervical surgery, infections etc. that may cause damage to the cervix or fallopian tubes.
- Cervical Mucous Defect: Cervical mucous helps the movement of the sperm to the egg. Defect with the cervical mucous makes it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg and thus difficulty in conception.
- Submucosal fibroids: The non-cancerous growth in the inner lining of the womb wall may also prevent conception
- Endometriosis: Is the condition when the endometrium or the lining of the uterus starts growing in other places such as the ovaries. This may affect the functionality of the ovaries, uterus or fallopian tubes thus making it difficult to conceive
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: An infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries may scar the tubes and cause damage thus affecting conception
- Sterilization: that involves the blocking of fallopian tubes and is rarely reversible
- Other causesinclude thyroid problems that cause irregular periods, cancer treatments that include radiation and chemotherapy and certain medications or drugs may impair fertility.